Sex Determination | Biology for All | FuseSchool

Sex Determination | Biology for All | FuseSchool

Human body cells have 46 chromosomes arranged in 23 pairs. There are 22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes (allosomes). For a male the sex chromosomes are usually XY whilst for a female they are XX. To make a baby, a sperm has to join with an ovum (or egg cell). You should know that they only have half of the DNA of a body cell; they are ‘haploid’. Instead of 46 chromosomes, so 23 pairs, they just have 23 chromosomes in total. 22 autosomes and one sex chromosome, or allosome. An ovum will always have an X chromosome but the sperm will have an X or a Y. If we looked at this in a punnett square, the gametes from the female would always be X. So X, X. And the gametes from the male would be either X or Y. So really, it is the man who determines the gender of the child. He brings the Y which is the only chance of a male childUnfortunately for Anne Boleyn, a wife of King Henry 8th of England in the 16th century, she was executed for not providing a male heir to the throne when really his sperm were to blame! From the punnett square, we would expect 50% of the offspring to be male and 50% to be female. But the actual outcomes may be different. One couple could for example end up with 4 girls. Discounting social factors such as sex-selective abortions, at birth the natural male-to-female sex ratio for humans is about 105 males to 100 females. It is thought that this is nature’s way of overcoming the fact that males have a higher risk of dying younger than females. The overall world male-to-female sex ratio drops down to 101 males to every 100 females, so is closer to the expected 50% of each. Most tortoiseshell cats are female because this fur colour is a characteristic found on the X chromosome. But males have one X chromosome, so why can’t males be tortoiseshell? For a tortoiseshell cat, two X chromosomes are needed to show the three different colours. So as females have XX sex-chromosomes, they can be tortoiseshell. But XY males can’t. Now I say ‘most’ rather than all because you can occasionally get a male tortoiseshell cat, just like you can occasionally get a human man with XX chromosomes. These rare individuals have an extra strand of DNA, and so are XXY (rather than just XY). So the male has the double X’s needed to be tortoiseshell. There are other rare chromosomal disorders that mean you can have XX human males and XY females. Or Turner syndrome when only one sex chromosome is present, a solitary X. XYY and XXYY are two more syndromes, and there are many others. From this video you should now know that females usually have XX sex-chromosomes, and males usually have XY. The father provides the Y-chromosome, and so the chance of having a male child falls on his shoulders. SUBSCRIBE to the FuseSchool YouTube channel for many more educational videos. Our teachers and animators come together to make fun & easy-to-understand videos in Chemistry, Biology, Physics, Maths & ICT. VISIT us at www.fuseschool.org, where all of our videos are carefully organised into topics and specific orders, and to see what else we have on offer. Comment, like and share with other learners. You can both ask and answer questions, and teachers will get back to you. These videos can be used in a flipped classroom model or as a revision aid. Find all of our Chemistry videos here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cRnpKjHpFyg&list=PLW0gavSzhMlReKGMVfUt6YuNQsO0bqSMV Find all of our Biology videos here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tjkHzEVcyrE&list=PLW0gavSzhMlQYSpKryVcEr3ERup5SxHl0 Find all of our Maths videos here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hJq_cdz_L00&list=PLW0gavSzhMlTyWKCgW1616v3fIywogoZQ Twitter: https://twitter.com/fuseSchool Access a deeper Learning Experience in the FuseSchool platform and app: www.fuseschool.org Follow us: http://www.youtube.com/fuseschool Friend us: http://www.facebook.com/fuseschool This Open Educational Resource is free of charge, under a Creative Commons License: Attribution-NonCommercial CC BY-NC ( View License Deed: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ ). You are allowed to download the video for nonprofit, educational use. If you would like to modify the video, please contact us: info@fuseschool.org

How Sex Genes Are More Complicated Than You Thought

How Sex Genes Are More Complicated Than You Thought

XX and XY are the chromosome pairs that determine your sex but what happens when you’re born with XXX or XYY? How often does this happen? Check out Wise Crack for more cool videos like this one: Is Gender Real? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gkilQ87UUj8 Read More: Human Sex Chromosomes Are Sloppy DNA Swappers http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/human-sex-chromosomes-are-sloppy-dna-swappers-180955946/?no-ist “The genetic bundles that code for males and females can get a little messy when they trade pieces during cell division” Evolution of the Y Chromosome http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/evolution-y-chromosome “The human X and Y chromosomes are a unique pair. The other chromosome pairs, called the autosomes, appear to be identical twins; they are superficially indistinguishable. In contrast, the X and Y chromosomes appear to be vastly different from one another.” ____________________ DNews is dedicated to satisfying your curiosity and to bringing you mind-bending stories & perspectives you won't find anywhere else! New videos twice daily. Watch More DNews on TestTube http://testtube.com/dnews Subscribe now! http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=dnewschannel DNews on Twitter http://twitter.com/dnews Trace Dominguez on Twitter https://twitter.com/tracedominguez Julia Wilde on Twitter https://twitter.com/julia_sci DNews on Facebook https://facebook.com/DiscoveryNews DNews on Google+ http://gplus.to/dnews Discovery News http://discoverynews.com Download the TestTube App: http://testu.be/1ndmmMq

Sex Determination: More Complicated Than You Thought

Sex Determination: More Complicated Than You Thought

From something as small and complex as a chromosome to something as seemingly simple as the weather, sex determination systems vary significantly across the animal kingdom. Biologist and teacher Aaron Reedy shows us the amazing differences between species when it comes to determination of gender. Lesson by Aaron Reedy, animation by BuzzCo (http://buzzzco.com).

GENETICS 1: SEX LINKAGE: XY CHROMOSOMES AND GENDER

GENETICS 1: SEX LINKAGE: XY CHROMOSOMES AND GENDER

XY CHROMOSOMES AND GENDER

XY & Z - Pokémon XYZ (FULL ENGLISH COVER)

XY & Z - Pokémon XYZ (FULL ENGLISH COVER)

Soundcloud: http://bit.ly/xyzfulljorporxx My full cover of 'XY&Z', Pocket Monsters XY&Z's first opening song. Originally sung by the amazing Rica Matsumoto. You guys asked for it, a lot, so here it is! The full version of XY&Z! Thank you all so much for the amazing support lately, it means a lot to me! Singing and translating this one was a blast! The song always got me so hyped while working on it! Most fun I've ever had with a cover for sure! Translating went pretty smoothly. Like with the first version, I got some inspiration from Nagi-chan's cover (you should check it out, link down below!) and my friend Roy, who came up with some fantastic sentences (you need to do this more often, Roy!). This cover wouldn't have been the same without either of them. By the way, can we talk about how freaking amazing the Pocket Monsters anime has been lately?! I mean, that Ash vs Diantha fight gave me chills! If you gave up on the Pokémon anime, you should start again! XYZ has been the bomb! I hope you enjoyed this cover and I hope to see you again next time! Lyrics: Hey! Just like the morning sun that’s shining brightly over Kalos (Our burning hearts are hotter than a Flame Charge) Yeah! We're all prepared and so you'll never see us run from chaos (Breaking the mold will let our passion Discharge) All of our feelings overlap, yeah we are always synchronized Cause we have formed a bond that will never dissappear And I know that I will never shed a tear As long as you're here (wowowoyeahyeah) So let'Z go! We’re growing as the battle’s raging on And you know! That defeat’s an opportunity To grow! We're never giving up Our determination is what makes us strong Yeah determination is what makes us strong Hey! There will be times where we'll be forced to Blaze through our opponents (If there's a roadblock stopping us, we'll tear it down!) Look! The Victory Star is right ahead so take a sprint and grab it (Our Steadfast hearts will lead us to our glory now!) Sometimes I wonder how much time there's left where we're a unity And the fear of being alone may sometimes knock me down But I get the strength to get back up again When you reach for my hand Now let'Z go! Strong rivals will be waiting up ahead And we'll show! We can knock them down with just one hit So I know! There's no way I can lose Cause my heart and dreams are always here with me And I know that you will always be with me, yeah! Let'Z go! If there's a fight that we can't seem to win Yeah let'Z go! I know that you will be there for me So let'z go! You'll always have my back With our strength combined we'll deal the last attack So let'Z go! We’re growing as the battle’s raging on And you know! That defeat’s an opportunity To grow! We're never giving up Our determination is what makes us strong Now let'Z go! We will fulfill this dream with all we have So let'Z go! And we’ll prove that we can catch them all! Let'Z go! Keep fighting with your heart And you're certain that your future will be bright When you see yourself transcend to unknown heights, yeah! So! Let'Z turn it up now (Shock them like a Thunderbolt) Go! Keep standing tall and if we’re fighting as a team, stronger than a Hyper Beam, we will be surpassing our dreams! _______________________________________________________________ Nagi-chan's channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCkhXK6Uq_89f6M5iksOyCGA Roy's channel: https://www.youtube.com/user/KilleRoyNl My Facebook page: http://www.facebook.com/jorporxx My Soundcloud: https://soundcloud.com/jorporx Ask me stuff: http://ask.fm/JorporXx

Secrets of the X chromosome - Robin Ball

Secrets of the X chromosome - Robin Ball

View full lesson: http://ed.ted.com/lessons/secrets-of-the-x-chromosome-robin-ball The sequence of DNA that we inherit from our parents encodes directions for making our cells and giving us specific traits. Identical twins have the same DNA sequence, so how can one twin end up with a genetic disorder while the other twin does not? Robin Ball explains how the secret lies in X chromosome inactivation. Lesson by Robin Ball, animation by Anton Trofimov.

XY SEX DETERMINATION IN HUMANS AND FLIES

XY SEX DETERMINATION IN HUMANS AND FLIES

Description

Change XY Chromosomes to XX Chromosomes Fast! Targets the DRMT1 - Subliminals Frequencies Hypnosis

Change XY Chromosomes to XX Chromosomes Fast! Targets the DRMT1 - Subliminals Frequencies Hypnosis

Change XY Chromosomes to XX Chromosomes Fast! Transgender Subliminals Frequencies Hypnosis Change XY Chromosomes to XX Chromosomes Fast! Transgender Subliminals Frequencies Hypnosis Change XY Chromosomes to XX Chromosomes Fast! Transgender Subliminals Frequencies Hypnosis ► Loop This Video: Change XY Chromosomes to XX Chromosomes https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n27o4VQ3apc&index=1&list=PLsHI2-Mg98aBiCSyhpVlStdAOnkkEMYPn ► Listen to Our COMPLETE Male To Female Transformation Series Playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLsHI2-Mg98aCyyN-wZdKTWnN9jXwCJwV4 This is only for the SERIOUS MTF Individual. This works to Change the XY Chromosomes to XX Chromosomes really assisting you with your MTF Transformation (per User Request). This targets the DRMT1 and addresses FOXL2 dominance-- WARNING: Do not listen o this if your not 100% serious as results are permanent. Headphones are optional Be sure to give yourself enough listening time! The brain requires about 7 minutes to entrain, or fall in sync, with the audio stimulus. Give yourself at least 15-30 minutes of listening time MINIMUM to experience the benefits. You can listen as much as you desire for quicker results. IMPORTANT--Do not forget to "like" the video to activate the magic. You Can Multi-task while listening. Downloading The Audio will cause the audio to be ineffective (WIll not produce results) Change XY Chromosomes to XX Chromosomes Fast! Transgender Subliminals Frequencies Hypnosis Change XY Chromosomes to XX Chromosomes Fast! Transgender Subliminals Frequencies Hypnosis Change XY Chromosomes to XX Chromosomes Fast! Transgender Subliminals Frequencies Hypnosis Listen daily until you achieve desired results! Listen at a minimum of 2 weeks for a difference. Results will vary. 2 weeks to 6 months. You can meditate with your eyes open, and focus on a candle or an object to help focus your mind; or, you can meditate with eyes closed, and focus solely on the music. Experiment with both to see what works best. Beginners usually find eyes-closed meditation to be easier because there are less distractions. Be patient. Some Individuals may see results instantly while others may take more time. This is a very powerful formula and should not be taken lightly. We are open for requests. Please feel free to request formulas in the comments section. *************If your Request has not been uploaded yet, please request it again in the comments section to ensure that we create it for you since we get a large amount of requests daily.********** Change XY Chromosomes to XX Chromosomes Fast! Transgender Subliminals Frequencies Hypnosis Change XY Chromosomes to XX Chromosomes Fast! Transgender Subliminals Frequencies Hypnosis Change XY Chromosomes to XX Chromosomes Fast! Transgender Subliminals Frequencies Hypnosis

9 Pokemon XY Evolutions packs: TRAINER MISTY'S DETERMINATION FULL ART!!!!!

9 Pokemon XY Evolutions packs: TRAINER MISTY'S DETERMINATION FULL ART!!!!!

XX and XY in the Lab

XX and XY in the Lab

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