In addition to genealogical matching, mtDNA testing uncovers the deep ancestry of your direct maternal line. This webinar focuses on mtDNA haplogroups and how they relate to your deep ancestry. mtDNA results pages covered: Results (Haplogroup section), Matches (mtDNA Haplogroup column), Haplogroup Origins, Migration Maps
I get it from my mama AND my daddy. LOL!
THE Y-DNA OF RICHARD III (shroud-physics.com) 1. A skeleton excavated from beneath a carpark in 2012 is almost certainly that of the English king, Richard III (1452 - 1485). 2. mtDNA (which is passed from mother to child) extracted from the skeleton matches mtDNA taken from descendants of Richard's sister Anne of York. However Y-DNA (which is passed from father to son) extracted from the skeleton apparently doesn't match Y-DNA taken from descendants of Henry Somerset the 5th Duke of Beaufort, who according to history descended from Richard's 2nd great grand father Edward III (1312 - 1377). 3. The implication according to geneticists, and the media, is that there is a "false paternity event" somewhere between Edward and the Somersets. The authors of the study maintain that this is "unremarkable", but the false paternity events don't end there, for only 4 of these 5 Somerset descendants actually match each other. 4. And it turns out that there is more, for although the patrilineal line of a Frenchman named Patrice de Warren traces back to Richard III through the illegitimate son of Edward III's 4th great grandfather, Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou (1113 - 1151), de Warren's Y-DNA doesn't match that of Richard III or any of the Somersets. 5. And it turns out that there is more, for although the patrilineal line of a Frenchman named Patrice de Warren traces back to Richard III through the illegitimate son of Edward III's 4th great grandfather, Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou (1113 - 1151), de Warren's Y-DNA doesn't match that of Richard III or any of the Somersets. 6. In the immortal words of the antagonist of Ian Fleming's Goldfinger: "Once is happenstance. Twice is coincidence. The third time it's enemy action." 7. A similar and more anomalous case involving ancient DNA concerns the presumed Y - DNA of Louis XVI (1754-1793). Y - DNA was successfully extracted from a cloth supposedly bloodied at the time of Louis' s beheading, and belongs - like that of Richard III - to haplogroup G2a. 8. Both Y-DNA and mtDNA were extracted from a mummified head presumed to be that of Louis's XVI's great grandfather Henry IV (1553-1610). 5 Y-DNA markers were recovered -an insufficient number to determine a haplogroup- but Charlier et al. concluded in 2013 that the blood and the head belonged with high probability to a man and a recent patrilineal ancestor. 9. But the Y-DNA of 3 living members of the House of Bourbon belongs -like 4 of the 5 living Plantagenets- to R1b. 10. In the light of the results of testing several living members of the House of Bourbon, this seems to imply that there are at least 2 false paternity events - Henry IV cannot have been the biological father of Louis XIII, and there is a false paternity event between Louis, Grand Dauphin, and Louis XVI. 11. The difficulty becomes even more pronounced when mtDNA extracted from the head is considered. This belongs to haplogroup U, but Henry IV was maternally related to Louis XVII, through his mother Jeanne d'Albret over Anna of Habsburg to Marie-Antoinette, and tests performed on a lock of her hair, and on her son's heart, show that Marie-Antoinette's mtDNA belongs to haplogroup H. 12. This calls for an extraordinary "false MATERNITY event." 13. What we have here are a group of incompatible premises: (1) presumed identification of ancient remains; (2) presumed Y-DNA mutation rates; and (3) presumed relatives of the deceased. 14. In the one case (3) is abandoned for the sake of consistency, and in the other it is (1) that is abandoned. But no one is considering that the source of the inconsistency is the presumption contained in (2) rather than that contained in (3) or (1). The following figures depict the difference between the assumption that DNA mutation rates are line-like, constant and smooth, and an alternative conception according to which they are wave-like and decrease erratically in the direction of the future. By reference to the latter alone, can perfect sense of the Plantagenet and Bourbon DNA results be made.
Air date: Wednesday, March 21, 2012, 3:00:00 PM Time displayed is Eastern Time, Washington DC Local Category: Wednesday Afternoon Lectures Description: The Greek myth of the giant Prometheus stealing fire from the Olympian gods and giving it to humans, and the gods' "Trojan horse" gift to Prometheus of the beautiful but incorrigibly curious Pandora neatly symbolizes the symbiotic origin of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and its role in human health and pathology (including aging). I will review our relatively recent awareness of mtDNA and our even more recent discovery of its important role in human pathology. The first two pathogenic mutations in mtDNA were reported in 1988: 24 years later, over 200 point mutations and innumerable deletions have been associated with an extraordinary variety of human disorders, most of them multisystemic ("mitochondrial encephalomyopathies") but some tissue-specific (for example, mitochondrial myopathies). After a brief reminder of the unique rules of mitochondrial genetics, I will propose a genetic classification of the mitochondrial disorders and provide examples of different mtDNA-related diseases. As a myologist by training, I feel obliged to stress the importance of the muscle biopsy in our diagnostic approach to mitochondrial diseases. As mtDNA mutations are so common, it is important to recognize which are pathogenic and which are neutral polymorphisms. I will, therefore, review and provide examples of the "canonical" criteria of mtDNA pathogenicity, including heteroplasmy, single fiber PCR, and the cybrid technology. In 2000, I wrote a review titled "Mutations in mtDNA: are we scraping the bottom of the barrel?" (Brain Pathology 2000:10:431-441). I will proceed to show that we are far from scratching the bottom of the barrel. We are still debating the frequency of mtDNA-related disorders; novel mutations or novel clinical phenotypes are still being reported at a brisk pace; the role of homoplasmic pathogenic mutations is not yet fully understood; similarly, the modulating role of mtDNA haplotypes is still being described; and -- importantly -- the pathogenic mechanism of mtDNA mutations is not yet understood (in other words, we still do not understand why MELAS differs from MERRF when both syndromes are due to mutations in mtDNA tRNA genes). It has been aptly said that mtDNA is the slave of nuclear DNA (nDNA), in that, in the course of the millennia, mtDNA has lost most of its original autonomy and now depends heavily on nuclear DNA for its basic functions, including replication and maintenance. Thus, besides disorders (reviewed above) due to "primary" mtDNA mutations, there are many disorders due to mutations in nuclear genes controlling mtDNA replication (mtDNA depletion syndromes), mtDNA maintenance (multiple mtDNA deletions syndromes) or mtDNA translation. These "indirect hits" (defects of intergenomic communication) are transmitted as mendelian traits but have genetic features that overlap with mitochondrial genetics. Thanks to new generation mitoexome sequencing, the neat subdivision between mtDNA depletion and multiple mtDNA syndromes is crumbling, as mutations in the same genes (usually involved with the homeostasis of the mitochondrial nucleotide pool) can impair either mtDNA replication or maintenance (or both). In a provocative article, the late Anita Harding wondered whether normal aging wasn't the most common mitochondrial disease of them all. There is considerable evidence that this is true and largely due to spontaneous accumulations of mtDNA deletions in postmitotic tissues. Finally, although I don't have the time to review therapeutic strategies, I will consider a potentially preventive approach to mtDNA-related diseases, namely cytoplasmic transfer. Although successful in primates and 2in preliminary experiments with defective human oocytes, this therapeutic modality requires careful ethical screening. The NIH Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series includes weekly scientific talks by some of the top researchers in the biomedical sciences worldwide. For more information, visit: The NIH Director's Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series Author: Dr. Salvatore DiMauro, Columbia University Medical Center Runtime: 01:04:37 Permanent link: http://videocast.nih.gov/launch.asp?17182
It's a journey through time
Maternal genetics of Russians, based on new research: http://download.springer.com/static/pdf/403/art%253A10.1007%252Fs11177-005-0197-3.pdf?auth66=1354745582_d10d0dc1518cdf15584a094b30268e5d&ext=.pdf Blood doesnt lie! Maternal genetic composition of ethnic Russians, which showed that the closest maternal relatives of Ryazan & Ivanovo Russians (the types closest to average Russian data) are 1. Hungarians 2. Lithuanians Average data Russian (from maternal genetic table comparative data) genetically the most resembles: 1. Bosnians 2, Lithuanians 3. Ossetians 4. Tatars 5. Hungarians 6. Germans 7. Ukrainians 8. Slovenians): http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11177-005-0197-3?null#page-1 Hungarians, Lithuanians (!), maternally you ARE more related to average Russians than we, Ukrainians or Poles:) Russian akanie (unablity to pronounce o, saying a (u as in "but") whereis o) is due to Baltic influence. Russian mtDNA results show that Lithuanian Golyad never moved anywhere - they were assimilated by Russian tribes of Vyatiches... ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Ґенетичні аналізи етнічних росіян / материнський ґенофонд росіян: За материнським ґенами, литовці і угорці набагато рідніші росіянам ніж українці...Зниклий балтський народ східна голядь (з Московської обл., народ споріднений литовцям) та балтійський народ верхньоокської археол. культури (Орельська обл.) зіграли солідну роль у формування російського етносу. Лише етнічні росіяни Тамбовської обл. мають українське материнське походження... Спорідненість угорцям від поглиненої предками росіян племені мещери (мішари, маджари) яка асимілювала пд. угрів-можарів Ґенетично найближчими до росіян Рязанської обл (сер. рос. тип) є (1) угорці (2) литовці (3) українці (4) боснійці (5) марійці до росіян Івановської обл (сер. рос. тип) є (1) угорці (2) литовці (3) українці (4) словенці (5) боснійці (6) татари до росіян Вологодської обл. є (1) комі-пермяки (2) татари (3) боснійці до росіян Орелської обл. є (1) литовці (2) боснійці (3) осетини до росіян Тамбовської обл. є (1) українці (2) німці (3) поляки до проміжного етнічного росіянина є (1) боснійці (2) литовці (3) осетини (4) татари (5) угорці (6) німці (7) українці (8) словенці Саме рязанський та івановський типи стоять найближче до виводимого середнього / проміжного росіянина з порівняльних табличних даних з проаналізованих областей (материнське коріння росіян більш "різнобарвне" ніж в Європі). Про аборигенні балтські племена Росії (літописна Голядь з Підмосков'я та "смоленська Литва") чит. тут - вони ніде не переміщувалися - вони тепер відомі нам, як росіяни (акання теж їхнє) : http://goledyanka.narod.ru/Goled.htm About extinct (assmilated) native Balts (Letto-Lithuanian / Prusso-Yatvagian tribes) of Russia read here (its in Russian, use google translate): http://goledyanka.narod.ru/Goled.htm Про роль мадяр у формуванні російського та західно-татарського (мішарського / мещерського) етносів чит. тут - наприкінці розділу "К вопросу о происхождении татар-мишарей": http://teptyar.narod.ru/meshera.txt Тат. історик Алімжан Орлов: "Антропологический облик мишарей Т. А. Трофим связывает с их восхождением к мадьярскому племенному союзу. Из всех народов Мещеры в числе наиболее вероятных предков татар-мишарей следует назвать МАЖАР..." А батьківщина "мадярських" мішар-татар - Мещера (Рязанщина)...
Visit http://www.genographic.com to learn more about the Genographic Project. Historically, the closer people lived to each other, the more genetic markers they shared. By using these regional patterns of variation, we can track the migratory paths of your ancestors to tell where you came from. ➡ Subscribe: http://bit.ly/NatGeoSubscribe About National Geographic: National Geographic is the world's premium destination for science, exploration, and adventure. Through their world-class scientists, photographers, journalists, and filmmakers, Nat Geo gets you closer to the stories that matter and past the edge of what's possible. Get More National Geographic: Official Site: http://bit.ly/NatGeoOfficialSite Facebook: http://bit.ly/FBNatGeo Twitter: http://bit.ly/NatGeoTwitter Instagram: http://bit.ly/NatGeoInsta The Journey of Your Past | National Geographic https://youtu.be/RGtaq3PiIoU National Geographic https://www.youtube.com/natgeo
Took me a while to take all of this information in. At first I was confused, but later it became a bit more clear as to what a small part of my genetic make up seems to be. There is a chance that I may do a autosomal DNA test at another company though.. Here's some more information on my genetic ancestry: Haplogroup L2 L2 is the most common haplogroup in Africa, and it has been observed throughout the continent. It is found in approximately one third of Africans and their recent descendants. The highest frequency occurs among the Mbuti Pygmies (64%). Important presence in Western Africa, specially in Senegal (43-54%). Also important in Non-Bantu populations of East Africa (44%), in Sudan and Mozambique. It is particularly abundant in Chad and the Kanembou (38% of the sample), but is also relatively frequent in Nomadic Arabs (33%) [Cerny et al. 2007] and Akan people (~33%). L2a L2a is widespread in Africa and the most common and widely distributed sub-Saharan African Haplogroup and is also somewhat frequent at 19% in the Americas among descendants of Africans (Salas et al., 2002). L2a has a possible date of origin approx. 48,000 YBP. It is particularly abundant in Chad (38% of the sample; 33% undifferentiated L2 among Chad Arabs), and in Non-Bantu populations of East Africa (Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania) at 38%. About 33% in Mozambique and 32% in Ghana. L2a1 L2a can be further divided into L2a1, harboring the transition at 16309 (Salas et al. 2002). This is observed in West Africa among the Malinke (Mandingo), Wolof, and others; in North Africa among the Maure/Moor, Hausa, Fulbe, and others; in Central Africa among the Bamileke, Fali, and others; in South Africa among the Khoisan family including the Khwe and Bantu speakers; and in East Africa among the Kikuyu from Kenya. L2a1c L2a1c often shares mutation 16189 with L2a1b, but has its own markers at 3010 and 6663. 16192 is also common in L2a1b and L2a1c; it appears in Southeastern Africa as well as East Africa. This suggests some diversification of this clade in situ. Positions T16209C C16301T C16354T on top of L2a1 define a small sub-clade, dubbed L2a1c by Kivisild et al. (2004, Figure 3) (see also Figure 6 in Salas et al. 2002), which mainly appears in East Africa (e.g. Sudan, Nubia, Ethiopia) and West Africa (e.g. Turkana, Kanuri). In the Chad Basin, four different L2a1c types one or two mutational steps from the East and West African types were identified. (Kivisild et al.) 2004. (citation on page.9 or 443). Haplogroup L2a matches with some of these people: The Wolof people are a West African ethnic group found in northwestern Senegal, The Gambia, and southwestern coastal Mauritania. Read more: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wolof_people The Kanuri people (Kanouri, Kanowri, also Yerwa and several subgroup names) are an African ethnic group living largely in the lands of the former Kanem and Bornu Empires in Niger, Nigeria and Cameroon. Read more: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kanuri_people The Kanembu are an ethnic group of Chad, generally considered the modern descendants of the Kanem-Borno Empire. The Kanembu number an estimated 655,000 people, located primarily in Chad's Lac Prefecture but also in Chari-Baguirmi and Kanem prefectures.They speak the Kanembu language, from which is derived the Kanuri language, with many speaking Arabic as a second language. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kanembu_people Sources: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_L2_(mtDNA) 'A Bidirectional Corridor in the Sahel-Sudan Belt and the Distinctive Features of the Chad Basin Populations: A History Revealed by the Mitochondrial DNA Genome', V. Cerny, A. Salas, M. Hajek, M. Zaloudkov and R. Brdicka - Annals of Human Genetics, Volume 71, Issue 4, Version of Record online: 18 JAN 2007 - http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-1809.2006.00339.x/pdf Mitochondrial DNA Variation in Mauritania and Mali and their Genetic Relationship to Other Western Africa Populations Authors: A. M. González, V. M. Cabrera, J. M. Larruga, A. Tounkara, G. Noumsi, B. N. Thomas, J. M. Moulds - Annals of Human Genetics - http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-1809.2006.00259.x/full The making of the African mtDNA landscape, Unidad de Genética Forense, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain. firstname.lastname@example.org, Salas A, Richards M, De la Fe T, Lareu MV, Sobrino B, Sánchez-Diz P, Macaulay V, Carracedo A. - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12395296 https://tracingafricanroots.wordpress.com/ancestrydna-regions/ https://billygambelaafroasiaticanthropology.wordpress.com Map of transatlantic slavery 1500-1870: http://ihuanedo.ning.com/forum/topics/yoruba-enslavement-of-african Volume and Direction of the Transatlantic Slave Trade from All African to All American Regions: https://d262ilb51hltx0.cloudfront.net/max/2000/1*fylwxmt1f-CHUXeIeuzj1g.jpeg